RUSSIAN ONLINE

Gender of the noun

Gender of the noun

There are three genders of the nouns in Russian. You can easily define gender of the noun by looking at its ending.

If you see that noun ends in consonant or Й, this noun is of the masculine gender.

ДОМ, ТЕЛЕФОН, ГАМБУРГЕР

МУЗЕЙ, СОЛЯРИЙ

2.

If you see that noun ends in А or Я, this noun is of feminine gender.

УЛИЦА, СЕМЬЯ

But! If a noun ends in ИЯ, it changes its ending to ИИ in plural from.

3.

A noun that ends in О or Е is of neuter gender.

ОЗЕРО, МОРЕ

Group of nouns that in Ь (soft sign)

Words that end in Ь can be either masculine or feminine. These words you have to memorise.

Here are some examples:

 masculine    

ДЕНЬ, СЛОВАРЬ, КАЛЕНДАРЬ, ШАМПУНЬ

 feminine

 ПОДПИСЬ, ПОМОЩЬ, ЛЮБОВЬ, ЖИЗНЬ

Plural from of the noun

Plural form of the noun

To put a noun into the plural form you need to change the last letter of the noun.

 

1.

 

You have to replace the last letter with Ы if noun ends in

consonant or A.

 

УЛИЦА – УЛИЦЫ

ТЕЛЕФОН – ТЕЛЕФОНЫ

 

2.

 

Replace the last letter with И if noun ends in

 Я, Й or Ь .

But! If a noun ends in ИЯ, it changes it ending to ИИ in plural from.

 

СЕМЬЯ – СЕМЬИ

ИСТОРИЯ – ИСТОРИИ

МУЗЕЙ – МУЗЕИ

ОТЕЛЬ – ОТЕЛИ

НОЧЬ – НОЧИ

 

3.

 

If a noun ends in replace the last letter with А.

 

ОКНО – ОКНА

 

4.

 

 If noun ends in Е, replace the last letter with Я,

 

МОРЕ – МОРЯ

Exceptions

Noun that make their plural form out of general rule.

MEMORISE!

 

БРАТ – БРАТЬЯ  brother- brothers

ДРУГ – ДРУЗЬЯ  friend – friends

СЫН – СЫНОВЬЯ  son – sons

ДОЧЬ -ДОЧЕРИ daughter – daughters

МАТЬ – МАТЕРИ   mother – mothers

ДЕРЕВО – ДЕРЕВЬЯ   tree – trees

ЛИСТ – ЛИСТЬЯ  leaf -leaves

Nouns that make their plural form with letter A

Small group of nouns of masculine gender with ending A in plural form.

There is a small group of nouns of masculine gender that in plural form ends in A.

 

ГОРОД – ГОРОДА    city- cities

ПАСПОРТ – ПАСПОРТА   passport – passports

СВИТЕР – СВИТЕРА      sweater- sweaters

ЛЕС – ЛЕСА   forest – forests

ГЛАЗ – ГЛАЗА  eye – eyes

7 letters spelling rule

There are 7 letters after which we don't write letter Ы

Please, keep in mind 7 letters spelling rule!

According to it we never write Ы after following letters:

 

К, Г, Х, Ч,Ш, Ж, Щ

Instead of Ы, you have to write И.

 

КНИГА – КНИГИ      not  КНИГЫ

МЯЧ – МЯЧИ       not МЯЧЫ

ПЛАЩ – ПЛАЩИ        not ПЛАЩЫ

ГАРАЖ – ГАРАЖИ      not ГАРАЖЫ

Uses of Nominative case

Uses of Nominative case

Nouns in this case stay in their dictionary form.

1.

The Nominative case defines an active subject of the action.

 

Маша любит читать.

Masha loves to read.

Noun Маша  stays in the Nominative case because it is an active subject of the action.

 

2.

 

Nouns stay  in the Nominative case if they denote a class or status of the subject.

For example:

Иван – врач.

Ivan is a doctor.

Москва – столица России.

Moscow is a capital of Russia.

In these examples nouns,  врач and столица stay in the Nominative case because they define a status.

 

3.

 

Nouns stay in the Nominative case when you call or address someone directly.

Маша, привет!

Hi, Masha!

Сергей! Посмотри!

Sergey! Look!

Uses of Accusative case

1. A goal of an action.

You need to put noun into the form of Accusative case if this noun is a direct object of an action of the verb.

amour_61

 Иван любит Машу.

 

In this sentence noun  Маша,  stays in Accusative case because it is a direct
object of the action ‘to love’.

2. Duration or repetition of time.

You have to put noun in its Accusative form if it expresses a duration or repetition of time.

Such expressions as: весь день, целый час, каждая неделя are used in Accusative case, if answer to the question:

 

How long ? Сколько времени? How often? Как часто?

 

каждая неделя /every week 
Мы ездим на дачу каждую неделю.
We go to the summer house every week.

 

вся ночь/ all night
Я всю ночь читала.
I had been reading all the night.

3. Distance, cost or weight.

If you need to express extend of distance, cost or weight put nouns in Accusative case.

вся дорога (all the way long)
Мы разговаривали всю дорогу.
We had been talking all the way long.

 

тысяча (thousand)
Марина купила платье за тысячу долларов.
Marina bought a dress for 1000 dollars.

 

тонна (ton)
Слон весит  тонну.
The weight of an elephant is a ton.

Certain prepositions: ЧЕРЕЗ, ПРО

You have to put noun into its Accusative form if you use it after prepositions: ЧЕРЕЗ, ПРО

Prepositions ЧЕРЕЗ, ПРО are always used with Accusative case.

 

Вам надо перейти через дорогу.
You have to cross the road.

 

In this sentence noun ‘дорога’ stay in Accusative case because it is used after preposition ‘через’.

 

Я читаю книгу про войну.
I read a book about war.

 

Here we used preposition ‘про’ that requires us to change the ending of the noun ‘война’ into the ending of Accusative case.

Certain prepositions: В /НА.

You have to put noun into its Accusative form if you use it after prepositions: В or НА.

Use Accusative case after prepositions В  and НА  where in English you use
the preposition ‘to’, to express a directional movement to the place.
Мы едем в деревню.
We are going to the village.
Я иду на работу.
I’m going to job.

 

to express for how long something is going to last
неделя – на неделю/ week- for a week
Я ездил в Москву на неделю.
I went to Moscow for a week.

Certain prepositions: after the preposition ЗА

You have to put noun into its Accusative form if you use it after prepositions ЗА.

Use preposition ЗА plus noun in Accusative case  with the meaning:

 

in exchange for
книга- за книгу/ book – for book
Я получил премию за книгу.
I received an award for the book.

 

duration of time
неделя – за неделю/week – a week before
Мы купили билет за неделю до поездки.
We bought ticket a week before trip.
год – за год /year- in a year
Я построил дом за год.
I built a house in a year.

 

to do something on behalf of in place of someone else
мама – за маму /mother – for mother
Анна расписалась за маму.
Anna sighed for the mother.

 

feel something for someone
сын- за сына/son-for son
Мама переживает за сына.
Mother feels bad for her son.

 

do something in support to or in favor of
Андрей болеет за ‘Спартак’.
Andrey is a fan of ‘Spartak’.
Давай выпьем за Таню!
Let’s drink to Tania!

 

after a certain age or time
Ей уже за тридцать.
She is already over thirty.

 

before an event
Алёна вышла из дома за час до лекции.
Alena went from the house an hour before the lecture.

 

‘by’ with verbs to lead, hold, take, seize, pull by
Ирина вела сестру за руку.
Irina led sister by the hand.
 
 

Certain prepositions: О/ОБ, ПО

You have to put noun into its Accusative form if you use it after prepositions: В, НА, ЗА, ЧЕРЕЗ, ПРО, СКВОЗЬ, ПО, О (ОБ)

Use Accusative case after prepositions О/ ОБ  which in this situation means against in the physical sense of bump, knock, smash against something.

 

Машина разбилась об отбойник.
A car is crashed against bump.
Иван бъёт мячом о стену.
Ivan hits the ball against the wall.

 

Preposition ПО  is used with Accusative case in two cases.

 

1.

 

When we mean ‘up to’ that includes a certain point in time or space.

 

пятница- по пятницу/Friday- until Friday
Магазин работает с понедельника по пятницу.
Shop works from Monday to Friday.
уши – по уши/ears – up to ears
Мой друг по уши в долгах.
My friend is in debt up to his years.

 

2.

 

When it implies distributive meaning ‘each’ and followed by numerals: 1,2,3,4 and so on.

 

*Please keep in mind nouns that follow numbers from 2 and higher are followed by nouns in Genitive case.
* If  preposition по is followed by number 1, then noun that stays after it must stay in Dative case).
Дети съели по два яблока.
Children ate two apples each.
У братьев по две машины.
Brothers have two cars each.

Uses of Genitive case

1. Denotes a possessor of something.

You have to put noun that expresses a possessor into the form of Genitive case where in English you would use structure with 's. However in Russian the possessor follows possessed object.

Examples:

 

Анна + дом = дом Анны
Anna+house = Anna’s house

 

Сергей + жена = жена Сергея
Segey + wife=Sergey’s wife

 

директор +кабинет = кабинет директора
manager + office= manager’s office

 

As you see, to express a possessor we changed the last letters of the nouns that define ‘a possessor’. So, these last letters are used where in English you would use ‘s.

2. Denote the whole in relation to the part.

Use noun in Genitive case where in English you would use prepositon 'of'.

Examples:

 

центр +город = центр города
center +city= city center (center of the city)

 

столица +страна = столица страны
capital +country = country capital (capital of the country)

 

берег +море = берег моря
coast +see =sea coast  (coast of the sea)

 

These ending of the Genitive case (in red) show relations between two nouns.

3. Denote the person after whom something is called.

Use noun in Genitive case if you want to express name of a street, theater, school.

Examples:

 

Чехов + школа =школа Чехова
Chehov + school = Chechov school

 

Маяковский + театр = театр Маяковского
Mayakovskiy + theater = Mayakovskiy theater

 

музей +Лермонтов = музей Лермонтова
museum + Lermontov = Lermontov museum

4. After numbers.

Use noun in Genitive case after numbers 2,3,4, and higher.

Examples:

 

For nouns that come after numbers  2, 3, 4 apply ending of Genitive case (singular form)

 

2 + билет = 2 билета
2 + ticket =  2 tickets

 

3 + билет = 3 билета
3 + ticket = 3 tickets

 

For nouns that come after numbers 5…. apply ending of Genitive case (plural form).

 

5 + билет = 5 билетов
5+ ticket = 5 tickets

 

5 …..20 apply endings of Genitive plural
21,22,23,24 apply endings of Genitive singular
25…30 apply endings of Genitive plural
31,32,33,34 apply endings of Genitive singular

 

5. After words that express quantity: сколько, много, мало, немного, несколько

Change enging of the noun to its Genitive form (PLURAL endings) after words: СКОЛЬКО, НЕСКОЛЬКО, МНОГО, НЕМНОГО, МАЛО

Examples:
Сколько + студент = Сколько студентов?
how many + student = How many students?

 

много + роза = много роз_
a lot of + rose = a lot of roses

 

немного + дело = немного дел_
a few + issue = a few issues

 

мало + музей = много музеев
few + museum = few museums

 

несколько + вопрос = несколько вопросов
several + questions = several questions

 

In all these examples endings of the nouns that stay after words of quantity have been changed according to the rule of Genitive case (plural).

6. After word 'НЕТ'.

Noun that stay after word 'НЕТ' has to be in the Genitive case.

 Examples:
машина – нет машины
У меня машина – У меня нет машины.
I have a car. I don’t have a car.

 

работа – нет работы
У меня хорошая работа – У меня нет работы
I have a good job. I don’t have job.

 

дождь – нет дождя
На улице дождь – На улице нет дождя
There is rain outside. There is no rain outside.

7. After certain verbs.

Certain verbs in Russian can be used only with nouns that stay in Genitive case.

There are some examples:

 

желать – to wish
Я желаю вам любви, счастья и удачи!
I wish you love, happiness and luck!

 

бояться – be afraid of
Моя дочь боится собак.
My daughter is afraid of dogs.

 

хватать – be enough
Мне не хватает внимания.
I don’t get enough attention.

 

достигать –  to reach, achieve
В этом году мы достигли  большого прогресса.
This year we achieved great success.

8. After comparative form of an adjective.

The second term of comparison can stay in the Genitive case.

In comparative structure noun that is used as a second term can stay in Nominative case:

 

NOUN + ADJECTIVE + ЧЕМ + NOUN  in Nominative case

 

Москва больше, чем Париж.
Moscow is bigger than Paris.
or

 

in Genitive case:
NOUN + ADJECTIVE + NOUN in Genitive case

 

Париж – больше Парижа
Москва больше Парижа.
Moscow is bigger than Paris.

9. After certain prepositions

You have to put noun into its Genitive form if you use it after prepositions: БЕЗ, ДЛЯ, КРОМЕ

Nouns that are used after prepositions: БЕЗ, ДЛЯ, КРОМЕ  have to stay in Genitive case.

 

Examples:

 

Марина – без Марины, для Марины, кроме Марины

 

БЕЗ without
Мы ходили на концерт без Марины.
We went to concert without Marina.

 

ДЛЯ for the benefit of
Я купил цветы для Марины.
I bought flowers for Marina.

 

КРОМЕ except, besides, apart from
На экзамене были все, кроме Марины.
Everybody was in the exam except Marina.

10. After certain prepositions.

You have to put noun into its Genitive form if you use it after prepositions: ДО, ОКОЛО, МИМО

Nouns that stay after prepositions: ДО, ОКОЛО, МИМО  have to stay in Genitive case.
Examples:
клуб – до клуба, около клуба, мимо клуба

 

ДО  before or until a certain time or physical point. 
Мы шли до клуба 30 минут.
We walked to the club 30 minutes.

 

ОКОЛО  near
Давай встретимся около клуба.
Let’s meet near the club.

 

МИМО past, by
Я часто хожу мимо клуба.
I often walk past the club.

11. After certain prepositions.

You have to put noun into its Genitive form if you use it after prepositions: У,ИЗ -ЗА, НАПРОТИВ, ПОСЛЕ

Nouns that stay after prepositions: У, ИЗ-ЗА, НАПРОТИВ, ПОСЛЕ   have to stay in Genitive case.

 

Examples:

 

У  – by, at a place
Виктор живёт у моря.
Victor lives by the sea.

 

Катя – у Кати, из-за Кати, напротив Кати

 

У  – at someone’s place
Сергей у Кати.
Sergey is in Katia’s place.

 

У  + NOUN or Personal pronoun in Genitive case expresses a possession. It corresponds to the English verb ‘to have’.

 

У Кати есть дочь и сын.
Katia has daughter and son.

 

ИЗ-ЗА  because of (used in negative sense)
Иван не успел на поезд из-за Кати.
Ivan missed the train because of Katia.

 

НАПРОТИВ  in front of
Маша живёт напротив Кати.
Masha lives in front of Katia.

 

ПОСЛЕ after
Я пришёл домой после Кати.
I came home after Katia.

 

 

ПРОТИВ  against
Люди проголосовали против налогов.
People voted against taxes.

 

12. After certain prepositions.

You have to put noun into its Genitive form if you use it after prepositions: ИЗ, ОТ, С

Nouns that are used after prepositions: ИЗ, ОТ, С  have to stay in Genitive case.

 

Examples:

 

ИЗ  from a place
If to express movement to a place you use  preposition НА then use preposition ИЗ  to express movement from the place.
 Я иду  В банк.
I’m going to the bank.
Я иду ИЗ банка.
I’m coming from the bank.

 

 С  from a place
If you use  preposition НА to express movement to a place you use  preposition НА then use preposition  С to express movement from the place.
 Я иду На концерт.
I’m going to the concert.
Я иду  С  концерта.
I’m coming from the concert.

 

 ОТ  from a person
Я иду  от  Марины и Виктора.
I’m coming from Marina and Victor.

 

 ОТ  from starting point of movement
От Москвы до Владивостока 7 дней на поезде.
It takes  7 days by train from Moscow to Vladivostok.

Uses of Dative case

1. As a indirect object of a verb.

Use form of the Dative case to express indirect object of the action.

Examples:

 

Иван – Ивану
Я дал твой номер Ивану.
I gave your number to Ivan.

 

Таня – Тане
Иван подарил Тане цветы.
Ivan gave Tania flowers.

 

In all these examples the nouns are indirect objects of the actions that is why they stay in the Dative case.

2. After expressions of permission.

Use noun in the Dative case after verbs: МОЖНО and НЕЛЬЗЯ.

Examples:

 

the noun in Dat. case + МОЖНО/НЕЛЬЗЯ  + verb infinitive

 

Мария – Марии
Марии можно идти в школу.
Maria is allowed to go to school.

 

Сергей – Сергею
Сергею нельзя курить.
Sergey is prohibited from smoking.

3. To express an age.

The Dative case is used to express an age of the person or object.

 Examples:

 

 директор – директору
Директору 42 года.
The manager is 42 years old.

 

моя сестра – моей сестре
Моей сестре 15 лет.
My sister is 15 years old.

 

наш город – нашему городу
Нашему городу 500 лет.
Our city is 500 years old.

 

4. After words НАДО/НУЖНО.

Use noun in the Dative case after words НАДО/НУЖНО.

You have to use a noun in the Dative case after words of necessity.

 

Examples:

 

noun in Dat. case + НУЖЕН (for masc. gender) + noun in Nom.case
                          НУЖНА  (for feminine gen.)
                          НУЖНО ( for neuter gen.)
                          НУЖНЫ  (for plural form)

 

Марина – Марине
Марине нужен дом.
Marina needs a house.
Марине нужна работа.
Marina needs a job.
Марине нужно платье.
Marina needs a dress.
Марине нужны деньги.
Marina needs money.

 

 noun in Dat. case + НАДО/НУЖНО + verb infinitive

 

Игорь – Игорю
Игорю нужно купить машину.
Igor needs to buy a car.

5. With feelings and physical states.

A noun that expresses an agent has to say in Dative case.

NOUN in Dat. case + ADVERB

 

 Examples:

 

Иван – Ивану
Ивану весело.
Ivan feels cheerful.

 

Аня – Ане
Ане скучно.
Ania is bored.

 

Татьяна – Татьяне
Татьяне интересно.
It is interesting for Tatiana.

 

6. After preposition К.

Nouns that come after prepositions: К have to stay in Dative case.

Preposition K  is used to express movement:

 

towards a person
подруга – к подруге
Я иду к подруге.
I’m going to my friend.

 

up to a point
море – к морю
Дети бегут к морю.
Children are running toward the sea.

 

toward, by a point in time
вечер – к вечеру
Она пришла домой к вечеру.
She came home toward evening.

 

7. After preposition ПО.

Put a noun in the form of the Dative case if you use it after preposition ПО

Preposition ПО can have different meanings:

 

along, down a line
улица – по улице
Маша идёт по улице.
Masha walks down the street.

 

around, throughout (indicates movement in different directions)
город – по городу
Мы  гуляем по городу.
We are walking around the city.

 

on the surface (after verbs meaning hit, strike, bang, etc.)
спина – по спине
Он похлопал меня по спине.
He slapped me on the back.

 

according to, by 
рассписание – по рассписанию
Автобус ходит по рассписанию.
The bus runs according to schedule.

 

by certain means of communication
скайп – по скайпу
Маша  и Саша часто разговаривают по скайпу.
Masha and Sacha very often talk on Skype.
интернет – по интернету
Я обычно смотрю фильмы по интернету.
I usually watch films on internet.

 

in, on (with area of knowledge)
реклама – по рекламе
Это наш менеджер по рекламе.
This is our advertising manager.
история – по истории
Это наш учитель по истории.
This is our history teacher.
профессия – по профессии
Кто вы по профессии?
What is your profession?

 

on, in (indicates repetition of periods of time)
вечер – по вечерам
Что ты делаешь по вечерам?
What do you do in the evenings?
вторник и пятница – по вторникам и пятницам
По вторникам и пятницам я хожу в бассейн.
I go to the swimming pool on Mondays and Fridays.

 

indicates equal distribution of objects 
тысяча – по тысяче
Родители дали нам по тысяче.
Parents gave us one thousand each.
букет – по букету
Девушкам подарили по букету.
The  girls were given a bouquet each.

8. After certain verbs.

Use a noun in the Dative case after such verbs as: ЗВОНИТЬ, ПОМОГАТЬ, СОВЕТОВАТЬ, МЕШАТЬ, РАЗРЕШАТЬ, ЗАПРЕЩАТЬ

Examples:

 

звонить  – to call
Катя – Кате
Почему ты не звонишь Кате?
Why don’t you call Katia?

 

помогать –  to help
друг – другу
Саша помогает  другу.
Sasha helps a friend.

 

разрешать – to allow
Аня -Ане
Родители не разрешают Ане гулять поздно вечером.
Parents don’t allow Anna to go outside at late evening.

 

запрещать – to forbid,prohibit
дети – детям
Виктория запретила детям смотреть телевизор.
Victoria prohibited children to watch TV.

 

 советовать – to advise
Андрей – Андрею
Что ты советуешь Андрею?
What do you advise  Andrey?

 

мешать – to bother, to prevent
Не мешай Андрею!
Don’t bother Andrey!

 

6. Before the verb 'НРАВИТЬСЯ'.

The agent of the action 'Нравиться (to like)' has to stay in the Dative case.

 noun in Dative case + НРАВИТЬСЯ+ noun in Nominative case.

 

Let’s say that Andrey likes Lena. Andrey here the agent of the action and therefore has to take the ending of Dative case. On the other hand, the noun that expresses the object which he likes has to stay in Nominative case.

 

Андрею нравится Лена.
Andrey likes Lena.

 

Here ending Ю is the ending of Dative case and noun Lena stays in Nominative case (dictionary form)

 

If you want to say that Lena likes Andrey, then you have to put noun Lena in Dative case and noun Andrey will be in Nominative case.

 

Лене нравится Андрей.
Lena likes Andrey.

 

 

 

Uses of Instrumental case

1. To express the instrument or means by which an action is performed.

Use a noun in the Instrumental case to express a tool of an action.

This case is often used with such verbs as:
КРАСИТЬ, ПИСАТЬ, ЛЕЧИТЬ, ЕСТЬ, РЕЗАТЬ

 

Examples:

 

рисовать – draw, paint     карандаш – карандашами
Дети рисуют карандашами.
Children draw with pencils.

 

писать – to write  ручка – ручкой
В школе в России обычно пишут ручкой.
In Russian school, they write usually with a pen.

 

лечить – to treat, cure   таблетка – таблетками
Я лечусь таблетками.
I treat myself with pills.

 

есть – to eat    палочки – палочками
В Китае едят палочками.
They eat with chopsticks.

 

резать – to cut     нож – ножом
Виктор  режет бумагу ножом.
Victor is cutting paper with a knife.

2. After certain prepositions.

You have to use a noun in the Instrumental case after prepositions: С, НАД, ПОД, ЗА, ПЕРЕД, МЕЖДУ

Examples:

 

С – with (in sense of together with, along with, accompanied by)
Катя – с Катей
Виктор встречается с Катей.
Victor is dating with Katia.

 

НАД  over, above
друг – с другом
Саша сидит в ресторане с другом.
Sasha is sitting in the restaurant with a friend.

 

ПОД – below,under, beneath
стол – под столом 
Кошка сидит под столом.
A cat is sitting under the table.

 

 ЗА  behind, beyond
дом – за домом
За нашим домом сад.
There is a garden behind our house.

 

ПЕРЕД – in front of, before
собрание – перед собрание
Давай встретимся перед собранием.
Let’s meet before the meeting.

 

МЕЖДУ – between
лекция – между лекциями
Между лекциями я хожу обедать в кафе.
I go to coffee shop between lectures.

 

3. With certain verbs.

After following verbs noun has to stay in Instrumental case.

These are some verbs that are used with the Instrumental case.

 

БОЛЕТЬ, ЗАНИМАТЬСЯ, УВЛЕКАТЬСЯ, ИНТЕРЕСОВАТЬСЯ, РАБОТАТЬ

 

 болеть – to be sick
грипп – гриппом
Маша болеет гриппом.
Masha has influenza.

 

заниматься – busy oneself, do, engage in
спорт – спортом
Я занимаюсь спортом.
I do sports.

 

увлекаться – have a fancy for, fall over
фотография – фотографией
Мой парень увлекается фотографией.
My boyfriend enjoys photography.

 

интересоваться – be interested in
история – историей
Андрей интересуется историей кино.
Andrey is interested in the history of cinema.

 

работать – work as  (a position at workplace)
медсестра – медсестрой
Моя мама работает медсестрой.
My mother works as nurse.

4. With parts of a day and seasons.

Noun that expresses agent in impersonal sentences has to stay in the Dative case.

Parts of a day

 

Such expressions as ‘in the evening’, ‘in the night’ in Russian are expressed with the help of Dative case.

 

Examples:

 

утро- утром
Мы едем в Париж утром.
You are going to Paris in the morning.

 

день – днём
Давай встретимся днём.
Let’s meet in the afternoon.

 

вечер – вечером
Давай поговорим вечером.
Let’s talk in the evening.

 

Seasons of the year

 

Such expressions as ‘in the summer’, ‘in the winter’ in Russian are expressed with the help of Dative case.

 

Examples:

 

зима- зимой
Зимой мы обычно ездим в горы.
We usually go to the mountains in the winter.

 

осень – осенью
Осенью в Сибири очень красиво.
Siberia is very beautiful in the fall.

5. To express the means of transport.

Use noun in the Dative case to express a vehicle by which the movement is performed..

Examples:

 

автобус – автобусом
Мои дети ездят в школу автобусом.
My children go to school by bus.

 

поезд – поездом
Анна ездит на работу поездом.
Anna goes to work by train.

 

самолёт – самолётом
Мы летим на море самолётом.
We fly to the seaside by plane.

6. After verb 'БЫТЬ'.

Nouns that come after verb БЫТЬ in Past and Future tenses stay in Instrumental case.

Past tense of verb to be “БЫТЬ” + Noun in Instrumental case
Future tense of verb to be  ‘БЫТЬ’  + Noun in Instrumental case
Examples:
инженер – инженером
Раньше я была инженером, а теперь я повар.
Before I was an engineer, but now I’m a cook.

 

учитель – учитель
Я буду учителем.
I will be a teacher.

 

актриса – актрисой
Ира хочет быть актрисой.
Ira wants to be an actress.

 

7. In passive sentences.

In passive sentences a noun that expresses an agent of an action stay in Dative case.

Examples:

 

друг – другом
Это письмо написано нашим другом.
This letter was written by  our friend.

 

отец – отцом
Этот дом построен отцом.
My house was built by my father.

 

брат – братом
Ей машина куплена ей братом.
Her car was bought by her brother.

8. In impersonal sentences.

A noun in impersonal sentences that expresses the force responsible for an action has to be in the form of Instrumental case.

Examples:

 

ветер – ветром
Дверь открыло ветром.
The door was opened by the wind.

 

снег – снегом
Дорогу занесло снегом.
The road was covered by snow.

 

молния – молнией
Дерево ударило молнией.
The tree was struck by lightning.

Uses of Prepositional case

1. To express a location of someone or something.

Use prepositions В or НА to express a location in Russian.

Use endings of this case to express a location. Here are the most common verbs that are used with this case.
ЖИТЬ, УЧИТЬСЯ, ОТДЫХАТЬ, ЛЕЖАТЬ, СТОЯТЬ, СИДЕТЬ ГУЛЯТЬ, ЖДАТЬ

 

Examples:

 

жить – to live    Лондон – в Лондоне
Я живу в Лондоне.
I live in London.

 

учиться – study    Нью- Йорк – в Нью-Йорке
Мой брат учится в Нью-Йорке.
My brother studies in New York.

 

отдыхать – to be on vacation    дача – на даче
Мы обычно отдыхаем на даче.
We usually stay in the summer house on vacation.

 

лежать  – to lie     стол – на столе
Книга лежит на столе.
Book lies on the table.

 

стоять – to stand      гараж – в гараже
Моя машина стоит в гараже.
My car stays in the garage.

 

сидеть – to sit     ресторан – в ресторане
Мы сидим в ресторане.
We are sitting at the restaurant.

 

гулять – to  stroll, walk       парк – в парке
Мы очень любим гулять в парке.
We like to stroll in the park.

 

ждать – to wait      остановка – на остановке
Я жду тебя на остановке.
I’m waiting for you at the bus stop.

2. After preposition O.

Use a noun in the Prepositional case after preposition O.

Use endings of Prepositional case after preposition ‘O/ОБ’ (about).
Following verbs are very often used after Prepositional case:
ГОВОРИТЬ, РАССКАЗЫВАТЬ, ПИСАТЬ, ПЕТЬ

 

Examples:

 

говорить – to speak, talk    проект – о проекте
Я говорю о проекте.
I speak about a project.

 

рассказывать – to tell, relate   экзамен – об экзамене
Иван рассказывает об экзамене.
Ivan tells about an exam.

 

писать – to write   Россия – о России
В статье пишут о России.
This article about Russia.

 

петь – to sing      любовь – о любви    
Она поёт о любви.
She sings about love.

3. To express means of transport.

Use prepositions НА and noun in the Prepositional case to express means of transport.

verb of motion + НА + noun in Prep. case.

 

Examples:

 

автобус – на автобусе
Я езжу на работу на автобусе.
I go to work by bus.

 

поезд – на поезде
Мы ездили в Уфу на поезде.
We went to Ufa by train.

 

машина – на машине
Обычно мы ездим на дачу на машине.
Usually, we go to the summer house by car.

 

коньки – на коньках
Я люблю кататься на коньках.
I like to do skating.

4. With months.

Use preposition В plus a noun in the Prepositional case to express the time of event.

Examples:
март – в марте
У меня день рождения в марте.
I have a birthday in March.
апрель – в апреле
У них свадьба в апреле.
Their wedding is in April.
май – в мае
У него в мае экзамен.
He has an exam in May.

Grammar

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